Good Managemental Practices Against Mastitis

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How to detect mastitis at a subclinical level
Mastitis is an inflammation of udder. To be honest,Mastitis should be called a managemental problem not a disease which rapidly declines milk production.It is a burning issue in each and every farm.




The ideal means of dealing with mastitis is to prevent it from happening. However, even under the best prevention and control programs, mastitis will occur. Remember that mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland. Detection of mastitis is generally based upon some indicators of the inflammation. However, treatment of mastitis works best if there is some information on the particular bacterium causing the problem.

Scheme of processes (fate/outcome) which occur when animal undergoing mastitis is as follows:


Detection of the Inflammation : The detection of the inflammation is based upon the response of the animal to the infection. Several significant changes occur in the tissue and in the milk in response to infection. These include infiltration of leukocytes (referred to as somatic cells) and increased vascular permeability, resulting in alterations in the chemistry of the milk resulting from hydrolysis of milk proteins by hydrolytic enzymes and oxidative substances released from phagocytes, alterations in milk pH and ionic solutes, and ingestion of milk components by phagocytes.

As already discussed that mastitis is a managemental problem not a clinical problem.
Here are determinants of mastitis in animals:
Detection of Somatic Cells : Several methods for detection of mastitis are available for detecting somatic cells in milk, including the California Mastitis Test
(CMT; a cow-side test; this is the one we use in class), the Wisconsin Mastitis Test (WMT; on-farm test), Microscopic Somatic Cell Count (usually requires a laboratory), Electronic Somatic Cell Counting (requires sophisticated equipment). The CMT and WMT detect formation of a gel when DNA in somatic cells react with a detergent. The reaction occurs on a paddle (CMT) and is graded subjectively (neg, trace, 1,2,3), or in a tube (WMT) and is measured in millimeters. CMT or WMT results can be used as rough estimates of the number of somatic cells in milk.
Step 1Step 2
Clean teats, strip a few squirts onto the ground, then collect several milliliters from each quarter into the respective wells.Tilt the plate in order to better estimate the volume of milk. Add a volume of CMT solution to each well that is approximately equal to the volume of milk in that well.
Step 3Step 4
Mix the CMT solution and milk by swirling the paddle.Positive reactions will be indicated by a gelatinous mass that collects near the center of the well as it is being swirled. Note the purple color of the gelatinous mass in this well..
Electrical Conductivity : Electrical conductivity of milk increases during mastitis due to increases in Na+ and Cl- and decreases in K+ and lactose. Changes in conductivity can be detected by hand-held or in-milkline instrumentation. The latter is the basis for the computerized milking systems that track electrical conductivity measurements on milk of cows at each milking. This data can be analyzed by comptuer programs to flag cows that have milk electrical conductivity that is altered from normal.

Best managemental practices:
Always use teat dips before and after milking.Not allow your animal to sit soon after milking.Keep your animal busy in standing position either by offering feed/concentrates.Keep track of your animal health status and fortnightly check of your animal against mastitis.

Please note that a fraction of this article has been taken from university of illinois. We have shared this post for informational purposes only after written permission obtained from the author. For more information you can email us at : ask (@) theveterinarysite.com
 
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